3D reconstruction and mixed reality of the radicular cyst as a method of visualisation in dentistry

October 1, 2022

Hajto-Bryk J, Proniewska K, Ozga P, Zarzecka J

Background: Cysts are the most common pathological changes in the jaws and periarticular cysts are the most common type of cyst in the facial skeleton. Diagnosis and treatment outcome evaluation is traditionally based on the radiological examination like periapical X-ray pictures and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging.

Aim: The study aimed to present the case of a patient with the use of 3D models and evaluate the advantages of this method compared to the traditional 2D imaging.

Materials and methods: 70-year-old patient of the University Dental Clinic in Krakow with an inflammatory cyst in the maxilla had been surgically treated. The treatment started with the antiseptic root canal treatment (conservative method) and the healing process was assessed using a stock of 2D radiological images. Because of the lack of evident signs of the healing of the periapical tissues after 16 months – surgical two-stage treatment was implemented. CBCTs were performed preoperatively, 5 months and 13 months after decompression procedure. Based on CBCT exams segmentation process was made. Its purpose was to reconstruct data shown on 2D images and convert them to a 3D model. Such model can be visualized using VR (virtual reality), AR (augmented reality), etc. or 3D printed. The studies showing the segmentation process (generating a 3D model based on 2D imaging) may increase diagnostic data and help validate the diagnosis. Segmentation (3D reconstruction) revealed the detail of the pathology, as well as comfortable and easy-accessible insight into the structures that ware captured in radiological examination. The possibility of preparing a cross-section of pathology was also appreciated. Conclusions: 3D digital models provide good quality medical documentation of treatment. Structures/ pathologies that are easy to overlook are more distinct here. This visualization may be specially valuable in treatment planning and dental education.